Loading...
Timber2021-12-13T23:22:24+00:00

We offer advice to ensure the customer is provided with practical and durable solutions

Technical advice on all our materials is available along with specialist knowledge of fire certification to meet with current building regulations forms part of our service on offer.

Timber

Types Of Timber

Ash (American)2021-11-12T21:27:51+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

White Ash, The tree reaches a height of 15m to 18m or a little more, and diameter of about 0.75m

The Timber

White Ash – The sapwood is almost white in colour and the heartwood varies from light brown to reddish-brown rather similar to European ash. Little lighter in weight, about 670 kg/m3 when dried.

Treatability

Easy

Moisture Movement

Medium

Density

Hardwood

Texture

Coarse

Use(s)

Tool handles, Joinery – Interior

Colour(s)

Grey (Brown)

Sample

Ash - American
Beech (European)2021-11-12T21:28:43+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

Beech has been called the mother of the forest. In close forest, it can reach a height of 45m with a clear bole of 1 5m but on average this is usually about 9m with a diameter averaging 1.2m occasionally more.

The Timber

Normally, there is no clear distinction by colour between sapwood and heartwood, the wood being very pale brown when freshly cut, turning reddish-brown on exposure, and deep reddish-brown under the influence of steaming treatment commonly applied in parts of the Continent before shipment. Some logs show an irregular, dark reddish-coloured kern or heart, caused it is believed, by the effect of severe frosts, and occurring more frequently in Continental beech.The wood is typically straight grained, with a fine, even texture, but varying in density and hardness according to the locality of growth, which weighs about 720 kg/m³ when dried.

Drying

Although it dries fairly rapidly and fairly well, beech is moderately refractory, tending to warp, twist, check and split, and shrink considerably. It therefore requires care both in air drying and kiln drying.

Strength

Green beech has general strength properties roughly equal to those of oak, but after drying, most values increase, and beech is stronger than oak in bending strength, stiffness and shear by some 20 per cent, and considerably stronger in resistance to impact loads.

Working Qualities

Good – * Red heart extremely difficult to work. Beech varies somewhat in its ease of working and machining according to growth characteristics and dried condition. Thus fairly tough material, or badly dried stock may tend to bind on the saw, or burn when cross-cut, or, if distorted due to drying provide difficulties in planing. On the whole, however it works fairly readily, and is capable of a good smooth surface. Beech turns well, takes glue readily, and takes stains and polish satisfactorily. It produces excellent veneer.

Treatability

Easy

Moisture Movement

Large

Density

720kg/m3

Chemical Properties

Excellent bending properties

Texture

Fine

Use(s)

Joinery – Interior, Furniture & flooring

Colour(s)

Pink/pale, reddish brown, white/cream

Sample

Beech - European
Cedarwood (Western Red)2021-11-12T21:29:41+00:00

Wood Type

Softwood

The Tree

The largest of the so-called cedars, it grows to a height of 45m to 75m with a diameter of 1m to 2.5m.

The Timber

The sapwood is narrow and white in colour, and the heartwood is reddish-brown. When freshly felled, the heartwood often displays a marked variation in colour; that from the centre of the log may be a dark chocolate-brown changing to salmon pink nearer the sapwood, or the wood may be variegated with alternate dark and light zones. The wood is non-resinous, straight-grained, somewhat coarse- textured and about 390 kg/m³ when dried.

Drying

Thin sizes dry readily with little degrade, but the timber generally tends to hold its moisture at the centre and care is needed with thick stock to avoid internal honey-combing and collapse. The timber holds its position well after drying with practically no tendency to warp and check. while movement due to shrinking and swelling in changing atmospheres is small.

Working Qualities

Good – The timber works easily with both hand and machine tools, but its relatively brittle nature, which can cause splintering during some operations, and its soft character usually means that care is needed in order to obtain the best results during mortising, planing and moulding. A good finish can be obtained, but cutters must be kept sharpened.

Strength

Its light weight and soft timber contributes to low strength properties.

Treatability

Extremely difficult, Difficult (sapwood)

Moisture Movement

Small

Density

390kg/m3

Texture

Coarse

Use(s)

Joinery – Exterior, Cladding, Decking

Colour(s)

Reddish brown (Ages to silver grey if left unprotected)

Sample

Cedarwood - Western Red
Cherry (American)2021-11-12T21:30:29+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

A medium-sized tree, 18m to 21m tall, with diameter of 0.5m

The Timber

The timber is hard, with fine, straight, close grain, the heartwood varying in colour from reddish-brown to rich red, the narrow sapwood being pinkish. Fine, narrow, brown-coloured pith flecks, and small gum pockets are a common feature of the wood, which weighs about 580 kg/m3 when dried.

Drying

Relatively quick drying with some tendency to warp.

Moisture Movement

Medium

Density

580kg/m3

Texture

Fine

Use(s)

Joinery – Interior, Furniture

Colour(s)

Reddish brown, Red

Sample

Cherry - American
Iroko2021-11-12T21:31:14+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

C. excelsa attains very large sizes, reaching 45m or more in height and up to 2.7m in diameter. The stem is usually cylindrical and mostly without buttresses. It occurs in the rain, and mixed deciduous forests.

The Timber

When freshly cut, or when unexposed to light, the heartwood is a distinct yellow colour, but on exposure to light it quickly becomes golden-brown. The sapwood is narrow, being about 50mm to 75mm wide, and clearly defined. The grain is usually interlocked and the texture is rather coarse but even, and the wood weighs on average 660 kg/m³ when dried.

Drying

The timber dries well and fairly rapidly, with only a slight tendency to distortion and splitting.

Working Qualities

Medium to difficult – Iroko works fairly well with most tools, though with some dulling effect on their cutting edges, especially when calcareous deposits are prevalent. On quarter-sawn stock, there is a tendency for grain to pick up due to interlocked grain, and a reduction of cutting angle to 15° is usually necessary to obtain a smooth surface. An excellent finish can be obtained if the grain is filled. It takes nails and screws well, and can be glued satisfactorily.

Strength

Iroko has excellent strength properties, comparing well with teak, though weaker in bending and in compression along the grain.

Treatability

Extremely difficult

Moisture Movement

Small

Density

660kg/m3

Chemical Properties

Occasional deposits of stone may occur

Texture

Medium

Use(s)

Joinery – Exterior, Joinery – Interior, Cladding & Decking

Colour(s)

Yellow/ brown

Sample

Iroko
Maple (Rock)2021-11-12T21:31:54+00:00

Wood Type

Softwood

The Tree

A. Saccharum and A. Nigrum grow to a height of 27m or more and a diameter of 0.5m to 0.75m

Distribution

Found generally in Canada and eastern USA

The Timber

Hard Maple is strong, heavy, hard, and Straight-grained and fine textured. The heartwood is light reddish but firmer texture.

Drying

All types dry without undue difficulty but rather slowly, particularly rock maple.

Working Qualities

Medium – Hard maple is rather difficult to work, the timber tending to cause saws to vibrate, but it is hard to nail or screw although these are held firmly.

Strength

Compared with European beech, rock maple is about equal in bending strength.

Treatability

Difficult

Abrasions

Very Good

Moisture Movement

Medium

Density

740kg/m3

Texture

Fine

Chemical Properties

High resistance to abrasion

Use(s)

Furniture, Flooring

Colour(s)

White / Cream

Sample

Maple - Rock
Oak (American Red)2021-11-12T21:32:55+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

Distribution

Eastern Canada and USA. In Canada it is more abundant than white oak, and covers a wider range.

The Tree

The trees vary according to species but average about 18m to 21 m in height with a diameter of 1.0m.

The Timber

The timber varies in colour from pink to pale reddish-brown, there is usually a reddish cast to the wood although sometimes it approaches white oak in colour. The large rays do not produce such an attractive figure as they do in white oak, and generally speaking, the wood is coarser in texture. The quality of red oak depends greatly on growth conditions, northern red oak. With its comparatively slow rate of growth, compares favorably with northern white oak, while red oak from the southern States is generally of faster growth, and consequently more coarse and open in texture. Red oak weighs about 790 kg/m3 when dried.

Drying

Dries slowly with a tendancy to warp and split, particularly on end grain.

Strength

Similar to European Oak

Treatability

Difficult

Moisture Movement

Medium

Density

790kg/m3

Texture

Medium

Use(s)

Joinery – Interior, Furniture & flooring

Colour(s)

Pink/pale, reddish brown

Sample

Oak - American Red
Oak (American White)2021-11-12T21:33:51+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

The white oaks vary in size and form according to species and soil conditions, some are unsuitable for timber production. But others vary in height from 15m to 30m, well-grown specimens having a clear cylindrical bole of up to 15m with a diameter of about 1.0m.

The Timber

Although generally resembling European oak, American white oak is more variable in colour, ranging from pale yellow-brown to pale reddish-brown, often with a pinkish tint. The multi-seriate rays are generally higher than those of the red oaks producing a more prominent and attractive silver-grain figure on quarter-sawn surfaces. The grain is generally straight, and the texture varies from coarse to medium coarse. As with the red oak, the quality depends greatly on the conditions of growth; slowly-grown northern white oak usually being lighter in weight and milder, than that from the southern states. Southern white oak is typically fast grown, and with its wide growth-rings is relatively coarse and more suited to constructional use. White oak weighs about 770 kg/m³ when dried.

Drying

Like all the true Oaks the timber dries slowly, with a tendency to split, check and honeycomb.

Working Qualities

Medium – Variable in working properties according to rate of growth, slow-grown material being easier to work than fast-grown, but either type can be finished smoothly if care is taken. A reduction of cutting angle to 20º is often helpful in planing. The timber can be glued, stained and polished, and takes nails and screws well.

Strength

It compares fairly closely with European oak in general strength, but on the whole, its higher density provides rather higher strength.

Treatability

Extremely difficult

Moisture Movement

Medium

Density

770kg/m3

Chemical Properties

Acidic nature, iron staining may occur in damp conditions. May also corrode metals.

Texture

Medium

Use(s)

Heavy structural use, Joinery – Exterior, Joinery – Interior, Furniture, Flooring

Colour(s)

White/cream, yellow/ brown

Sample

Oak - American White
Oak (European)2021-11-12T21:34:45+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

Both species reach a height of 18m to 30m or a little more depending upon growth conditions which also affect the length of the bole. When drawn up in forests at the expense of their branches, this may be 1 5m or so in length, but in open situations, the tree branches much lower down. Diameters are about 1.2m to 2m.

The Timber

There is no essential difference in the appearance of the wood of either species. The sapwood is 25mm to 50mm wide and lighter in colour than the heartwood which is yellowish-brown. Quarter-sawn surfaces show a distinct silver-grain figure due to the broad rays. The annual rings are clearly marked by alternating zones of early-wood consisting of large pores, and dense late-wood. Conditions of growth accordingly govern the character of the wood to a great extent; for example, in slowly grown wood the proportion of dense late-wood is reduced in each annual growth-ring, thus tending to make the wood soft and light in weight. The growth conditions in the various countries which export oak, vary considerably. The weight of oak varies according to type; that from the Baltic area, western Europe, and Great Britain being about 720 kg/m³ and that from Central Europe about 672 kg/m³ on average after drying.

Drying

Oak dries very slowly with a marked tendency to split and check, particularly in the early stages of drying, and there is considerable risk of honeycombing if the drying is forced, especially in thick sizes. End and top protection must be provided to freshly sawn stock exposed to sun and drying winds and sticker thickness should be reduced to about 12mm for stock piled in the open air during early spring and onwards until winter.

Working Qualities

Medium to difficult – The working and machining properties of oak vary with the mild to tough material which either machines easily or with moderate difficulty. In general oak finishes well from the planer or moulding machine although in some cases a reduction of cutting angle to 20° is preferable. The wood can be stained, polished, waxed, and glued satisfactorily, takes nails and screws well, except near edges, when the wood should be pre-bored, and takes liming and fuming treatments well.

Strength

Both the sessile and pedunculate oaks have well known and high strength properties, and those hybrid oaks developed from both types and common throughout Europe, are similar in their strength properties.

Treatability

Extremely difficult

Moisture Movement

Medium

Density

720kg/m3

Abrasions

Very Good

Texture

Medium to coarse

Chemical Properties

Iron staining may occur in damp conditions, similarly corrosion of metals.

Use(s)

Heavy structural use, Cladding, Joinery – Exterior, Joinery – Interior, Furniture, Flooring, Sleepers, Decking

Colour(s)

Yellow-brown

Sample

Oak - European
Pine (Southern)2021-11-12T21:35:31+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

Both species attain a height of 30m and a diameter of 0.75m or slightly more.

The Timber

The sapwood is narrow in the better grades, sometimes up to 50mm wide, lighter in colour than the heartwood which is yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. Both species are typical of the hard-pine class, being resinous, with the growth-rings usually well-marked by the contrast between the light-coloured early-wood, and the dense, darker-coloured late-wood, which produces a rather coarse texture in the wood, especially in fairly rapidly grown material with its wide growth-rings. The timbers weigh about 670 kg/m³ on average when dried.

Drying

All these species dry well with little degrade.

Working Qualities

Medium – Works moderately easily, but the resin is often troublesome, tending to clog saw-teeth and cutters, and to adhere to machine tables. Saws with teeth of fairly long pitch reduce the effect of resin. A good finish is obtainable, and the wood can be glued satisfactorily, takes nails and screws well, and gives fair results with paint and other finishing treatments.

Strength

The general strength properties of P. palustris and P. elliottii compare closely with those of ‘Douglas fir”.

Treatability

Extremely difficult

Moisture Movement

Medium

Density

670kg/m3

Texture

Medium

Chemical Properties

Denser material also known as longleaf pitch pine.

Use(s)

Joinery – Exterior, Joinery – Interior, Structural use, Decking

Colour(s)

Reddish-brown

Sample

Pine - Southern
Poplar2021-11-12T21:36:16+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

With the exception of the white poplar and aspen, the trees reach a height of 30m; the two former species seldom exceeding 18m. The diameter of all types is around 1m.

The Timber

Poplar timber can be grouped with willow, lime and horse chestnut, since they are all soft, fine-textured woods, generally without lustre and without any very characteristic colour. Poplar wood is whitish or light green in colour, with no clear distinction between sapwood and heartwood. It is usually straight grained, without odour, uniform in appearance and light in weight, the various species weighing about 450 kg/m³ when dried, although the grey poplar is usually a little heavier at 480 kg/m³.

Drying

Dries rapidly and fairly well.

Working Qualities

Medium – Poplar is reputed to have the best working properties, A good finish is obtainable with all species however, if thin, sharp-edged tools are employed. They can be glued satisfactorily, and take paint, polish and varnish quite well, but while they can be stained the wood accepts the stain with patchy results.

Strength

For their weight, poplar timbers are relatively strong and tough, and in the dried state, and depending on type.

Treatability

Difficult, easy (sapwood)

Moisture Movement

Large

Density

450kg/m3

Texture

Fine to medium

Use(s)

Joinery – Interior, Flooring and Furniture

Colour(s)

White/Cream, light green

Sample

Poplar
Redwood (European)2021-11-12T21:37:17+00:00

Wood Type

Softwood

Introduction

“Scots pine” and “European redwood” are the trade names generally used in the UK & Ireland to differentiate between homegrown and imported Pinus sylvestris.

The Tree

The tree is generally 30m high with a diameter of about 1m but larger trees may be found on favourable sites.

The Timber

The sapwood is creamy-white to yellow in colour, narrow, especially in northern environments, becoming wider in the southern areas, and the heartwood is pale yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, resinous, and usually distinct from the sapwood. The growth rings are clearly marked by the denser late-wood. The weight of dried timber is about 510 kg/m³.

Drying

The timber dries rapidly, and without undue degrade, but owing to its tendency to develop sap stain, it should either be anti-stain dipped, or dried quickly after conversion.

Working Qualities

Medium – In general, the timber works easily and well with both hand and machine tools, but ease of working and quality of finish is dependent upon the size, and number of knots, and degree of resin present. The wood is capable of a smooth, clean finish, and can be glued, stained, varnished and painted satisfactorily, and takes nails and screws well.

Strength

For its weight, the timber is strong and moderately hard.

Treatability

Extremely difficult, Easy (sapwood)

Moisture Movement

Medium

Density

510kg/m3

Texture

Medium

Use(s)

Joinery – Interior, Furniture, Structural use, Decking, Joinery – Exterior, Mouldings, Flooring, Cladding

Colour(s)

White / Cream

Availability

Readily available at timber merchant

Sample

Redwood - European
Rosewood2021-11-12T21:38:03+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

INDIAN ROSEWOOD
A large tree with a cylindrical and fairly straight bole, averaging 6m in length, but much longer lengths may be found. The diameter varies according to locality and growth conditions from 0.3m to 1.5m.

The Timber

BRAZILIAN ROSEWOOD
The trees produce very varying examples of colour and figure in the wood which varies from chocolate or violet-brown, to a rich purple black. The timber has a somewhat oily appearance and the sapwood is nearly white in colour and sharply defined. When worked, the wood has a distinct mild, fragrant odour. The grain is usually straight, and the texture medium, sometimes gritty. It is a hard, heavy wood, weighing about 870 kg/m³ when dry. It air dries slowly, with a tendency to check.

INDIAN ROSEWOOD
The sapwood is narrow, pale yellowish-white in colour, often with a purple tinge, and the heartwood varies in colour from light, nearly golden-brown through shades of light rose-purple with darker streaks, to deep purple with rather blackish lines, darkening with age. The wood is dull, as a fragrant scent, and a uniform and moderately coarse texture. The grain is interlocked in narro bands and the wood is heavy, weighing 870kg/m³ when dried

Drying

INDIAN ROSEWOOD
Rosewood is probably the best of the hard Indian timbers to dry in log form or as hewn-square baulks prior to conversion. By this means, colour is retained much better, and degrade is low, except for the heart centre which may shake badly and should be boxed out during conversion. The timber dries slowly and should be protected against rapid drying both in the open air and in the kiln.

Working Qualities

Medium

BRAZILIAN ROSEWOOD
It is somewhat difficult to work because of its hardness, and tends to blunt cutting edges rather quickly. It is capable of an exceedingly smooth surface but is sometimes too oily to obtain a high polish. INDIAN ROSEWOOD Moderately hard to saw and machine, with a fairly severe dulling effect on cutting edges due to calcareous deposits. The reference to boxing out the heart during initial conversion (see Drying) is pertinent to sawing in final conversion; the large shakes which are liable to form in the centres of logs become filled with chalky deposits, as opposed to the smaller amounts which plug some of the vessels, and according increase the tendency of the wood to blunt cutting edges. Planing and moulding produces a good finish when the cutting angle is reduced to 25º. The wood turns well, and, with proper grain filling, takes an excellent polish, and an even better waxed finish. It produces a really handsome veneer.

Strength

INDIAN ROSEWOOD
It is a hard timber, and in comparison with English oak, is about 25 per cent stronger in bending and in compression along the grain, 15 per cent stiffer, and 20 per cent more resistant to suddenly applied loads.

Treatability

Extremely difficult

Durability

Very Durable

Moisture Movement

Small

Density

870kg/m3

Texture

Medium

Chemical Properties

Fine dust may be irritant

Use(s)

Joinery – Interior, Furniture and Mouldings

Colour(s)

Dark brown/black, purple brown

Sample

Rosewood
Sapele2021-11-12T21:38:48+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

A very large tree with cylindrical bole and small or no buttresses. Grows to a height of 45m or more and a diameter at breast height of 10m or slightly more.

The Timber

The Sapwood is pale yellow or whitish, the heartwood pinkish when freshly cut, darkening to typical mahogany colour of reddish-brown. Sapele is characterised by a marked and regular stripe, particularly pronounced on quarter-sawn surfaces. It is fairly close textured, and the grain is interlocked. It is harder and heavier than African mahogany. Weighing about 640 kg/m3 when dried.

Drying

The timber dries rapidly with a marked tendency to distort. Quarter-sawn material is less liable to degrade in drying.

Working Qualities

Works fairly well with hand and machine tools, but the inter-locked grain is often troublesome in planning and moulding. It takes screws and nails well, glues satisfactorily, stains readily, and takes an excellent polish.

Strength

Sapele is much harder then African or American mahogany, and in resistance to indentation, bending strength, stiffness, and resistance to shock loads.

Treatability

Difficult

Moisture Movement

Medium

Density

640kg/m3

Texture

Medium

Use(s)

Joinery – Exterior, Joinery – Interior, Furniture, Flooring

Colour(s)

Reddish-Brown (Typical mahogany colour)

Sample

Sapele
Walnut (American)2021-11-12T21:39:27+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

Under favorable conditions, the tree attains a height of 30m and a diameter of 1.5m or more, the bole often being clear for 15m to 18m.

The Timber

The sapwood is usually narrow and pale brown in colour, the heartwood varying in colour from rich chocolate-brown to a purplish-black. The wood has a fine even texture and a rather coarse grain, and weighs about 660 kg/m³ when dried.

Drying

Dries rather slowly with a tendency to honeycombing.

Working Qualities

Good – The timber is moderately hard, tough, strong and is easily worked. It finishes well and takes an excellent polish.

Treatability

Extremely difficult

Moisture Movement

Medium

Density

660kg/m3

Texture

Coarse

Use(s)

Furniture

Colour(s)

Dark brown/black

Sample

Walnut - American
Wenge2021-11-12T21:40:08+00:00

Wood Type

Hardwood

The Tree

Medium –sized tree, 15m to 18m in height with a diameter up to 1.0m.

The Timber

Sapwood whitish, heartwood dark brown with fine, close blackish veining, giving the wood a handsome appearance. A very hard and heavy wood, it weights about 880 kg/m3 when dried. Straight grained, it has a rather coarse texture.

Drying

Dries slowly and requires care if surface checking is to be avoided.

Working Qualities

Good- Reported to be easy to work, but difficult to polish.

Strength

The wood is stated to have good resistance to bending and to shock.

Treatability

Extremely difficult

Moisture Movement

Small

Density

880kg/m3 – May vary

Texture

Coarse

Use(s)

Joinery – Exterior, Joinery – Interior, Flooring

Colour(s)

Dark brown/black

Sample

Wenge

Certification

FSC Certification Logo

Certificate No: TT – COC – 006088

FSC certification has been achieved through BM Trada for the sale and manufacture of bespoke joinery products. As consumers are increasingly demanding eco-friendly and responsible products, assuring buyers that timber has come from a forest which has been evaluated and certified as being managed according to the correct social, economic and environmental standards.

CONTACT US